New dawn: The rise of PAS with a strategic mission

By Jamari Mohtar

May 19, 2017

IS former premier Tun Mahathir Mohamed who’s also the archrival of Prime Minister Datuk Seri Najib Razak, admitting defeat? If so, then this will be a strong signal that General Election 14 (GE 14) is so imminent because it would mean the already bright and rosy situation for Najib now is going to be brighter and rosier still, which could tilt the result of GE 14 in his favour in a big way.

In a recent news report based on what he has written on his blog, Mahathir said: “Whether or not PAS would work with Umno in GE 14, the Islamist party’s participation in the polls would reduce support for Pakatan Harapan (PH) and PAS itself. PH and PAS will lose and Barisan Nasional (BN) will win. This is PAS’ true struggle. It’s not for race and religion; it’s aimed at weakening the Malays.”

However, when I showed this news report to a group of friends who have openly espoused to me their support for the Islamist Pan-Malaysia Party (PAS) – though I cannot vouch whether they are card-carrying members – they were not as sanguine as my tentative conclusion was.

“The grand old man of Malaysian politics is so wily and cunning after breathing, sleeping, dreaming and scheming with Power for 22 years that you must take what he said with a pinch of salt; no, not a pinch but many pinches of salt.

“That seems to be his strategy: trying to indoctrinate the Malays that PAS is the troublemaker for splitting the Malays when he was the one who had split the Malays while still in power, and continues to split the Malays even when it is time for him to prepare for the meeting with his Maker,” said the most vocal among this group of friends.

The others started to chime in immediately before I could even make my point that the comment was indeed very harsh on someone who has done a lot for the country.

Among other things, they were asking me what Malays are Mahathir referring to because if it is the United Malays National Organization (Umno) Malays, the Democratic Action Party (DAP) Malays, the People’s Justice Party (PKR) Malays, the National Trust Islamic Party (PAN) Malays or the Malaysian United Indigenous Party (PPBM) Malays – all but Umno being the component parties of opposition coalition PH – then PAS is not interested in these Malays.

These devoted supporters of PAS are focused on PAS’ strategy to attract Malays who sincerely believe in the relevance of Islam in providing solutions to the multi-faceted problems of modern living, and also Malaysians of all races and religions who would want to listen and understand the universal message of Islam without prejudice.

There seems to be some forceful logic in this argument of PAS supporters simply because PAS is an Islamist party with Islam being seen as sacrosanct and a foundation for its existence and survival, while Mahathir being the chairman of a Malay party sounds like a sore loser who could already see defeat before even the battle (i.e. GE 14) had begun.

From the perspective of PAS followers and supporters, the inherent contradiction in Mahathir’s argument can be clearly seen in the context of his refusal to lend support to PAS in its pet Islamic project of amending the Syariah Courts (Criminal Jurisdiction) Act 1965 or RUU 355, and yet at the same time yearning for PAS to be a bedfellow in PH.

Shouldn’t that decision of being a fellow member of PH be up to PAS that should be respected by all, they asked? If in the unthinkable event that PAS chooses Umno/BN to be its bedfellow, there is nothing earth-shattering about this, for PAS had already done the unthinkable before by being a bedfellow of DAP in the past, much in the same manner that Mahathir is also doing the unthinkable by being a bedfellow of DAP now.

After all, Umno has helped PAS in making it possible for its president, Datuk Sri Abdul Hadi Awang to table the RUU 355 in Parliament. Moreover, Umno has also proven its worth when it comes to doing something for Islam as opposed to a brand new party that has nothing to offer yet at the moment, like PPBM in which Mahathir is the chairman.

Herein lies the talk about an emerging new PAS that is very refreshing, and takes very seriously the question of tactics and strategies instead of focusing merely on ideal or ideology in a rhetorical manner much like delivering a kuliah subuh (religious talk held after the fajr prayer in a mosque), as in the past.

That also seems to be the unspoken message of PAS when its influential Syura Council came out with a decision to officially sever ties with fellow oppositionist PKR on May 11.

Some observers see this as a first salvo aimed primarily at the PH coalition, and to some extent at the ruling coalition BN to take serious notice of an emerging PAS with a strategic mission and outlook.

Many thought that during the recent Muktamar or party congress beginning in late April, the motion to sever ties with PKR which was unanimously passed by the delegates was a mere rhetorical platitude, simply because the powerful and influential Syura Council did not discuss it at the congress then.

And even if the Syura Council were later to discuss the issue, the prevailing conventional wisdom then was that it wouldn’t dare to endorse the motion, as it will spell the end of PAS as a political force in Selangor, come snap election time. PAS is in a comfortable position in Selangor as part of the state government under PKR. But at this late hour when GE 14 could be called at anytime from now until June next year, PAS is very much aware the idea of a snap election in Selangor is just untenable.

And to top it all, the idea of cutting ties with PKR on the basis of the Islamic concept of Ta’awun (which means to help and compete with each other for the public good) is just a bit mind blowing, coming so soon after Abdul Hadi had expounded on the concept of Tahaluf Siyasi (political cooperation) during the Muktamar to explain some permissible aspects of political cooperation with Umno on issues such as the RUU 355 and support for the Rohingyas.

Some were even amazed at the discrepancy between words and actions, and wondered why can’t the cooperation between PAS and PKR in Selangor be continued under Tahaluf Siyasi instead of Ta’awun. Finally, others wondered what is the difference between Tahaluf Siyasi and Ta’awun?

Tactics and strategies

The key in understanding PAS’ latest strategy is to understand the mindset of the ulama (religious scholars), as the Syura council is basically PAS’ Council of Ulama.

In Islam, ulama are seen as the Inheritors of the Prophets (Warisatul Anbiya) and as such, decorum and due respect for them are to be accorded. This does not mean that one can’t disagree with them or passionately debate with them on issues of importance to the ummah or the nation, for there is no such thing as the concept of excommunication in Islam.

Also important, as mentioned earlier, is the foundational basis of Islam being the reason for the existence and survival of PAS which means the implementation of hudud laws, in however a small way, is the very raison d’être for its participation and existence in the political sphere.

The genius of PAS lies in recognizing that contrary to popular belief, the question of implementation of hudud laws per se is not a controversial issue among Muslims. What is controversial are the issues of timing, nature and scope of its implementation. PAS’ stance on the issue seems to be that these differences of opinion can be ironed out once the first small step of having the will to implement hudud is there.

And so it detested both the loud noises (DAP, MCA, MIC, PPBM and PAN) and the less loud (PKR and Umno) of anyone who opposes this first small step of tabling the RUU 355 in Parliament when these people know very well that tabling it doesn’t necessarily mean the Bill will be passed.

PAS expects that in the unique circumstances of Malaysia being a pluralistic and multi-racial society with its own unique social contract as defined by the Constitution which includes Islam being the official religion of the country by virtue of the Muslims being in the majority and the Malays as the indigenous sons of the soil, a legislature that is characterized by a system of Parliamentary democracy with a Constitutional Monarchy at its core, would be matured enough to allow the Bill to be tabled and discussed in Parliament.

PAS wants the RUU 355 to be discussed so that when a vote on it is finally taken, all would be well should the Bill be approved. If it is rejected, however, PAS will accept the rejection and will have to discuss and decide among its members whether to “fight” for another day or to disband the party, which will render it from becoming a political force in the country, since it has failed to meet its own raison d’être for its existence and survival.

Hence, PAS was shocked to see that all manner of obstacles were vehemently put in place to stop it from doing this small step with such vitriol as if the party is Public Enemy Number One in the legislature and country.

Seen from this perspective, PAS has now grown matured when Abdul Hadi and the Syura Council do not treat the terms Tahaluf Siyasi and Ta’awun as just mere words or actions the way the non-ulamas see these terms.

Instead they see both as two different strategies that are interwoven seamlessly on the basis of PAS’ assessment of itself as a political Kingmaker in the coming GE 14 to get back at those who mercilessly want to “kill” their political existence and survival.

Thus, seen in this light Tahaluf Siyasi is the operative principle for PAS to work with any political party that does not treat Islam/hudud as public enemy number one.

The break with PKR

Why then would PAS cut off ties with PKR under Tahaluf Siyasi and then downgrading the ties to Ta’awun, especially in Selangor?

Based on a media statement issued by Abdul Hadi on May 16, it has a lot to do with PKR leader Datuk Seri Anwar Ibrahim’s Kajang Move in 2014. When Hadi warned PKR not to be reckless on the issue of its three Selangor legislators by heeding the lessons from the Kajang Move, the media statement of Hadi tells more by its silence than by what it says.

In that fateful year, PKR and DAP conspired to let one of the latter’s legislators in the State Assembly of Selangor to resign in order that a by-election could be held in which Anwar will contest, and in the event of a victory, lead the Selangor State Government as Menteri Besar, as part and parcel of his ambitious journey to Putrajaya.

Abdul Hadi was not fully apprised of this Kajang Move by Anwar and Lim Kit Siang/Guan Eng at the initial stage. Had Abdul Hadi known the full details that early, he would have opposed it because it transgresses the Islamic concept of Bai’ah (Oath of Allegiance) that Abdul Hadi sees as compulsorily binding (wajib) between a legislator and the constituents that had voted him.

So he found it distasteful and unpalatable that a serving legislator should resign just to make way for another legislator at the Federal level to contest the state by-election in a power grab. More distasteful was the attempt to oust and shame the then PKR’s MB, Tan Sri Khalid Ibrahim who had done very well but refused to resign.

The Kajang Move became the final straw that broke the camel’s back, as it is clearly seen by Hadi as a form of disrespect to an Alim and relegating PAS to a backwater role in the now defunct Pakatan Rakyat (PR).

When it came to payback time, Abdul Hadi made it difficult for Anwar’s wish to see his wife, Datuk Seri Dr Wan Azizah Wan Ismail, who had contested the said by-election and won, from becoming the Menteri Besar. Wan Azizah once again has to adorn the mantle of a reluctant politician since Anwar was embroiled in the second sodomy case, which disqualified him from contesting.

So Ta’awun becomes the operative principle in a transitory relationship between PAS and PKR in order that both can work together in Selangor for the benefit of the people within the context of observing the principle of Bai’ah in which the three PAS legislators in Selangor are compulsorily mandated to serve their position in the State Exco until GE 14 is called.

GE 14: A look ahead

So what is PAS game plan for GE 14? Clearly, the party relishes on its role and strategy as a Kingmaker. This has already drawn fire from a former managing director of PAS newspaper, Harakah who had commented that it is pointless for PAS to participate in a GE if winning the election is not its objective.

But most of PAS rank and file supported this strategy. They know that by joining the PH, they would be marginalized and relegated by the other partners of PH to a fifth class political party. Even when Anwar was around, they were already being treated as the third among equals.

Moreover, their experiment with being a member of an opposition coalition had never led to the coalition winning the election, with at best only winning the meaningless popular vote, which did not give them the mandate to rule the country.

So they are left with the strategy that could capitalize on their strength – Muslim as opposed to Malay power. Numerical wise, Muslims have a slight majority over Malays because it includes non-Malay Muslim constituents, and this will give a wide berth for it to maneuver in the DAP, MCA and MIC constituencies if they play their cards well.

The reliance on Muslim power does not only include some rapprochements with Umno in certain areas which may include an electoral pact, but also with PAN whom PAS has never considered as an enemy but their lost child, even though members of PAN were the ones who had made the move to unseat the ulama but instead was upstaged by the latter in what could be seen as a testament of Abdul Hadi’s excellent brinkmanship. As for the non-Muslim constituents, PAS would be relying on beefing up their Friends of PAS wing to get the votes for them.

But what remains unsaid is the strong possibility that instead of a kingmaker, PAS may end up as a king itself if providence is on its side. This scenario was not lost on former Law Minister Datuk Zaid Ibrahim who’s now a DAP member, when he warned the opposition to consider seriously the potent combination with or without an electoral pact of the biggest Muslim party (Umno) and the second biggest Muslim party (PAS) ‘uniting’ to become a force to be reckoned with.

Unlike Zaid, the veteran former premier Mahathir who has proven to be a master tactician time and again when it comes to winning election prefers to highlight the Malay power and sidelines the Muslim power in order to show to PAS the folly of its move not to join PH and paint a lose-lose scenario with PAS losing more than PH that could wipe it out of existence, if PAS does not join the PH coalition.

But the chances of PAS heeding Mahathir’s call will be so slim because most PAS rank and file have a long memory of remembering how the former premier had treated a PAS icon, the late Tok Guru Nik Aziz Nik Mat in 1994 with a letter berating the latter mercilessly in a harsh tone without due regard and respect to his position as an alim for wanting to implement hudud in Kelantan.

The letter was in response to the plea of Nik Aziz to Mahathir for his assistance to facilitate the tabling of the hudud bill in the Federal Parliament after the bill was passed by the Kelantan legislature in 1993.

The letter ended with Mahathir’s overt threat that “the Federal Government will take appropriate action against the PAS government in order to maintain the dignity and prestige of Islam and its adherents” should the “State Government of PAS” persisted in its desire to implement hudud.

It is in this context that the PAS supporters whom I spoke to earlier at the beginning of the article were so harsh in their comments on Mahathir, as PAS had to suffer the ignominy of being condemned as a party who had passed the hudud laws but did nothing for more than 10 years to implement it.

“That is the major difference between Mahathir and Najib. You can call Najib by whatever negative epithets you want but at least he has the grace to respect the ulama who are his political opponents by visiting them at the hospital when they are sick and attending to their need in politics,” said the PAS supporter.

“Mahathir’s lieutenants may make fun of this hospital visit in their blogs but they forgot it is an Islamic adab that will earn merits in the sight of Allah to visit any sick person especially if he is your political nemesis, more so if he is an ulama. It is this political capital of respecting the ulama and not shaming them that will be sorely missing among Mahathir and his henchmen in the coming GE,” he added.


Prophecies on Events Very Near to The Last Hour

By Jamari Mohtar

This is an attempt on my part to paint various scenarios of what may transpire during the Last Hour based on the Quran and the Six Sunans or Sahah Sittah (the Six books of authentic Hadith by Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawood, Tarmizi, an-Nasai and Ibn Majah or simply known as “The Six Authentic”).

My focus in this instalment is on the two out of the 10 major signs of the Last Hour as foretold by Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him, s.a.w). These two signs are Gog & Magog, and the Fire of Yemen. Here’s the Hadith on the 10 major signs of the Last Hour:

Allah’s Messenger (s.a.w) came to us all of a sudden as we were talking. He said: “What are you discussing?” We said: “We are talking about the Hour (of Resurrection).” Thereupon, he (s.a.w.) said: “It will not come until you see ten signs before it. He made a mention of the Smoke, the Dajjal (Anti-Christ), the Daabba (the Beast), the Rising of the Sun from the West, the Descent of Jesus Son of Mary (a.s.) (from Heaven), the emergence of Ya’juj and Ma’juj (Gog & MaGog), and Khusuf (Landslides) will occur in three places: one in the East, one in the West and one in Arabian Peninsula. At the end, a Fire would burn forth from Yemen (or from Aden according to Ahmad), which would drive people to the place of their final gathering place.”  (Sahih Muslim, Ahmad).

 A Brief Remark on Gog and Magog

Based on the above Hadith, the majority of Muslim scholars believe that Gog and Magog have not yet entered the world stage. However, based on the work of the great Muslim scholar, Ibn Khatir [b1300CE (701H), d1373CE (774H)] in his Al-Bidayah wa’l-Nihayah (The Beginning and the End), Gog and Magog are two groups of Turks, descended from Yafith (Japheth) the father of the Turks who is also one of the sons of Prophet Noah.

According to some historians, in addition to being the father (ancestor) of the Turks, Japheth is also the father of the Europeans. Some opine that the Scythians (a minor rival of the Greeks) were Gog and Magog descended from Japheth.

The area inhabited by Gog and Magog is said to be in Central Asia, covering an immense land area of over a million square miles extending from western Hungary/Austria eastward to the Aural Sea, north to the Upper Volga, and its southern region extending all the way to the Caucasus Mountains between the Black and Caspian seas.

When the legendary Dhul-Qarnayn met some of the tribes living in that area in one of his three journeys mentioned in the Quran, they asked for his help against Gog and Magog. He built a huge iron fortress for them to prevent the incursion of Gog and Magog into their area. It wasn’t a prison but rather a demarcation of the southern boundary beyond which Gog and Magog cannot proceed further with their adventures. So this has the effect of limiting their playing and killing fields to the north and hence, Gog and Magog are sometimes referred to as the Kingdom of the North.

The Iron Wall of Dhul-Qarnayn was breached during the lifetime of Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w) based on a Hadith narrated by Zainab bint Jahsh (r.a): “… once the Prophet (pbuh) awoke from such a sleep that his face was red and he said: ‘There is none worthy of worship except Allah. Woe to the Arabs, from the great evil that is approaching them. Today a gap as big as this has opened up in the wall of Yajuj and Majuj …’ and the Prophet (pbuh) indicated the size of the hole by forming a ring with his index finger and thumb.” (Sahih Bukhari)

All the above mean Gog and Magog had already entered the world stage in ancient time and the Iron Wall of Dhul-Qarnayn merely limited their freedom of movement to cause debauchery and mischief to the south, and by the Prophet’s time, they were able to breach even this Iron Wall with the existence of the Khazaria Kingdom at the place where the Iron Wall used to stand.

I have touched on this topic in greater details in my previous posts. It is my contention here that the bulk of people forming the army of the Dajjal (Anti Christ) in the Last Hour are going to be the modern descendants of Gog and Magog.

When Prophet Jesus (Isa a.s.) descends to Earth and killed the Dajjal, the bulk of this surviving Gog and Magog based army of the Dajjal will run helter-skelter to hide and join with their fellow Gog and Magog that have not taken part in the battle against Prophet Isa (a.s.). They bide their time and prepare themselves ruthlessly for the final battle and reappear as a new, formidable breed of Gog and Magog to confront Prophet Isa (a.s.) in what can be dubbed as the “Mother of All Battles”.


Islamic Eschatology – The Last Hour

FROM the viewpoint of Islamic Eschatology, the Last Hour will not come until all the minor signs pertaining to its coming have been detected and manifested. Based on the many authentic Ahadith, there are between 70 to 100 minor signs preceding the Last Hour.

Once all these minor signs are manifested, the 10 major signs foretold by an authentic Hadith of Imam Muslim will appear that will herald the beginning of The Last Hour. Note that this Hadith did not list the 10 major signs according to chronology.

The Two-Stage Phase of The Last Hour

A) The End of History – the First Stage

The first stage is what I called the End of History. It is a nerve-wrecking event that will occur with the manifestation of one of the 10 major signs – the appearance of a new, powerful breed of Gog and Magog created by Allah. Prophet Isa (Jesus a.s.), together with the remnants of his Muslim army that had rallied behind him while he killed the Dajjal (Anti-Christ), is no match for this invincible breed of Gog and Magog.

Hence, Allah will command Prophet Isa (a.s.) to bring to safety the remnants of his army, along with the Muslim population that has survived the reign of terror of the Dajjal, by seeking refuge at the top of a mountain. Gog and Magog would besiege them on all sides at the foot of the mountain. They will then devise new weapons of war to be unleashed toward the top of the mountain, targeting Nabi Isa (a.s.) and the Muslims.

This prophecy is contained in a Hadith in Sahih Muslim when Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.) said: “It will be under such conditions that Allah will reveal to Jesus these words: I have brought forth among My servants such people (i.e. the new breed of Gog and Magog) against whom none will be able to fight; you take these people (i.e. remnants of Jesus’ army and the Muslims that had survived the reign of terror of the Dajjal) safely to Tur (a mountain), and then Allah will send Gog and Magog and they will swarm down from every slope.”

In another Hadith of Imam Muslim, the location of Tur (mountain) is specified:

“Gog and Magog would walk until they reach the mountain of al-Khamr, and it is a mountain of Bait al-Maqdis (Jerusalem), and they would say: “We have killed those who are on the earth. Let us now kill those who are in the sky. They would shoot their arrows towards the sky and the arrows would return to them smeared with blood.”

For the believers (Jesus, his army and the Muslims), this will be the final, greatest trial – facing an enemy that Allah has assured them they cannot vanquish. Only Allah can annihilate this invincible enemy. The situation is rather akin to the earlier battles of Islam in which the fledgling Muslims under Prophet Muhammad s.a.w. faced an enemy many times superior in term of numbers and weaponries.

The psychological scenario of the Muslims under the leadership of Prophet Jesus (a.s.) at this climactic event during the first stage of The Last Hour is also analogous to the earlier Muslims under the leadership of Prophet Muhammad s.a.w. For instance, the Quran in describing the Battle of the Trench, which occurred in 624 CE (Christian Era), says:

“Behold! They came on you from above you and from below you, and behold, the eyes became dim and the hearts gaped up to the throats, and ye imagined various (vain) thoughts about Allah! In that situation were the Believers tried: they were shaken as by a tremendous shaking.” [Quran al-Ahzab (33): 10-11].

The essence and wisdom behind all trials and tribulations faced by humankind in the past, present and future are explained in the Quran when Allah says:

“Or think you that you will enter Paradise without such (trials) as came to those who passed away before you? They were afflicted with severe poverty and ailments and were so shaken that even the Messenger and those who believed along with him said, ‘When (will come) the Help of Allah?’ Yes! Certainly, the Help of Allah is near!” [Quran al-Baqarah (2): 214]. 

Coming back to the first stage of The Last Hour, after a few days of being besieged and attacked from below by this new, powerful breed of Gog and Magog at Mount Tur, the believers (Jesus and his army along with the surviving Muslim population) are hard pressed and disconsolate and they begin to beseech Allah for His Help. In the words of a Hadith narrated by Imam Muslim:

“Jesus and his companions will then be besieged here (at Tur, and they will be so hard pressed) that the head of the ox will be dearer to them than one hundred dinars. Allah’s Prophet Jesus (a.s.) and his companions will supplicate to Allah, Who will then send to them (i.e. Gog and Magog) insects (which will attack their necks) and in the morning they would perish as one single person. Allah’s Prophet Jesus (a.s.) and his companions will descend from Mount Tur, and they will not find on earth as much space as a single span that is not filled with putrefaction and stench. Allah’s Prophet Jesus (a.s) and his companions will then beseech Allah Who will send birds whose necks would be like those of Bactrian camels and they will carry them (the putrefied and stench remains of Gog and Magog) away and throw them where Allah wills. Then Allah will send rain which no house of mud-bricks or (tent of) camelhair will keep out and it will wash the earth until it resembles the mirror.”

If one finds it incredulous the event surrounding the annihilation of the new, powerful breed of Gog and Magog by mere insects, in our own time, we can already see how vicious and fatal to humans, insects like mosquitoes are in decimating a significant proportion of the human species through their epidemic causing dreaded virus of malaria, dengue and zika.

Furthermore, there is a precedent on this in the Quran when some years before the birth of Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.), the powerful king of Yemen, Abraha and his army of the Elephant, were annihilated by Allah through pebbles thrown at them by the Ababil birds, when they marched to Mecca with the singular intention of destroying the Kaaba.

With the annihilation of Gog and Magog, Prophet Jesus (a.s.) will then rule the Earth as a just ruler for 40 years, heralding the period of everlasting peace and goodwill among mankind on Earth. This is stated in the following Ahadith:

“By Him in Whose Hands my soul is, son of Maryam (a.s.), (i.e. ‘Isa), will shortly descend amongst you people (Muslims) as a just ruler.” (Sahih Bukhari)

“The Hour will not be established until the son of Maryam (a.s.) (i.e. ‘Isa) descends amongst you as a just ruler.” (Sahih Bukhari)

At the time of his death, ‘Isa (a.s.) will have reappeared on this earth for forty years.” (Abu Dawood)

Why is this stage called End of History?

From the viewpoint of Islamic Eschatology, history is nothing more than a continuous struggle between Truth (Haq) and Falsehood (Bathil). Truth is represented by the way of life on Earth that is based on Divine Revelation, while Falsehood is way of life on Earth that is in contradistinction to the Divine Guidance.

This historical battle first began when Adam (a.s.) and his wife, Siti Hawwa (Eve) along with their adversary, Iblis (the Devil) were all dislodged from the Garden of Eden to Earth which became their and their descendants’ temporary abode until the End of Time.

At some points of the historical process Truth held sway over Falsehood, while at some other points, Falsehood held sway. But when in victory, none is able to completely vanquish the other side permanently. This victory is in the nature of the adage that it is all right to lose a battle or some battles, but you must win the war to seal the final victory.

The final victory will take place with the onset of the epic historical Mother of All Battles when Truth is able to vanquish Falsehood completely and permanently during the Last Hour when Prophet Isa (a.s.) i.e. Jesus becomes triumphant with the help of Allah in annihilating Gog and Magog.

This will usher in an era of peace and goodwill on Earth for 40 years with his just rule, thus signifying the start of the first phase of the Last Hour, the End of History. Henceforth, there will no longer be history in the sense that the war between Truth and Falsehood ends.

That period of the End of History will come to an end with the demise of Prophet Jesus (a.s.) where he will die a natural death and will be buried in Medina beside Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.). His demise will set the second stage of the Last Hour known as The End of Time or simply The End Time.

“After his descension on earth, Prophet Isa (a.s.) will marry. He will have children, and he will remain on earth 19 years after marriage. He will pass away and Muslims will perform his Salaat Janaza (funeral prayer) and bury him next to Rasulullah (s.a.w).” (Tirmidhi)

B) The End of Time – the Second Stage

Before this second stage occurs, there are some events during the lifetime of Nabi Isa (a.s.) that will pave the way for this.

For the first seven years of his just rule on Earth, there will be no rancour between any two persons. After that, Allah will send a cold wind from the direction of Syria and this will slowly envelope and cause the good and pious people to die.

By the time of Nabi Isa’s death, this process of good and pious people dying through the cold wind speeds up and gains momentum so that there will come a time some years after the demise of Jesus when the Earth is populated by bad and evil people.

This prophecy is contained in the two ahadith in which the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.) said:

“At that time Allah will send a pleasant wind, which will soothe (people) even under their armpits. He will take the life of every Muslim and only the wicked will survive who will commit adultery like asses and the Last Hour would come to them.” (Sahih Muslim)

“Then people will live for seven years, during which time there will be no rancour between any two persons. After that Allah will send a cold wind from the direction of Syria. None will survive on Earth, having a speck of good in him or faith in him: he will die. Even if some among you were to enter the innermost part of the mountain, this wind would reach that place also and cause your death. I heard Allah’s Apostle (s.a.w.) as saying: Only the wicked people will survive and they will be as careless as birds with the characteristics of beasts. They will never appreciate good nor condemn evil. Then Satan will come to them, in human form, and would say: Don’t you respond? They will say: What do you order us to do? He will command them to worship the idols but, in spite of this, they will have an abundance of sustenance and lead comfortable lives.” (Sahih Muslim)

Notice that there is actually no battle here between Truth (Haq) and Falsehood (Bathil) as the stage of the End of History has long passed with the demise of Prophet Jesus (a.s.). What happens here is that Allah takes away the soul of the good and pious, and hence by default Falsehood prevails to face alone the fury of the End Time.

The Fire of Yemen – Start Time of the End of Time

Then the stage is set for the second stage of the Last Hour i.e. the End Time. This stage will begin with a fire that would burn forth in Yemen – another sign of the 10 major signs foretold by an authentic Hadith of Imam Muslim.

“Allah’s Messenger (s.a.w.) came to us all of a sudden as we were talking. He said: “What are you discussing?” We said: “We are talking about the Hour (of Resurrection).” Thereupon, he (s.a.w.) said: “It will not come until you see ten signs before it. He made a mention of the Smoke, the Dajjal (Anti-Christ), the Daabba, the Rising of the Sun from the West, the Descent of Jesus Son of Mary (a.s.) (from Heaven), the emergence of Ya’juj and Ma’juj (Gog & MaGog), and Khusuf (Landslides) will occur in three places: one in the East, one in the West and one in Arabian Peninsula. At the end, a Fire would burn forth from Yemen (or from Aden according to Ahmad), which would drive people to the place of their final gathering place.”  (Sahih Muslim, Ahmad)

“The people will be gathered in three methods:

  1. The first batch will be of those who wish or have a hope (for paradise) and have a fear (of punishment).
  2. The second batch will comprise those who will come to gather, riding: two on a camel, three on a camel, or ten on a camel.
  3. The third batch will be the rest of the people who will be urged to gather by the Fire which will accompany them at the time of their afternoon nap and stay with them where they will spend the night, and will be with them in the morning wherever they may be then, and will be with them in the afternoon wherever they may be then.”  (Sahih Bukhari)

The Swooning Trumpet

This is then followed by the sound of a Trumpet in which all mankind and every living creation of Allah including those in the heavens will immediately faint (swoon) and die. After a lapse of some time, the second Trumpet will be blown indicating the Day of Resurrection followed by the Day of Judgement.

This is encapsulated in the following Quranic verse and Hadith:

And the Trumpet will be blown, and all who are in the heavens and all who are on the earth will swoon away, except him whom Allah wills. Then it will be blown a second time, and behold they will be standing, looking on (waiting)” [Quran, al-Zumar (39):68].

“Abu Hurairah said: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.) said: “Between the two blowings of the Trumpet there will be forty.” The people said, “O Abu Hurairah! Forty days?” I said: “I am not sure.” They said, “Forty years?” I said: “I am not sure.” They said, “Forty months?” I said: “I am not sure. Then Allah will send rain down from the sky and they will grow as herbs grow. There is no part of a man which will not decay except a single bone at the base of the coccyx, from which he will be re-created on the Day of Resurrection.”  (Muttafaq Alaih)

Imam al-Nawawi said: “What is meant by the words of Abu Hurairah, “I am not sure” is that he could not be certain as to whether what was meant was forty days or years or months; all that he was certain of was that it was forty in general terms. 

In Sahih Muslim, it is narrated that ‘Abd-Allah ibn ‘Amr (r.a.) said: “The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.) said: “… then the Trumpet will be blown and no one will hear it but he will bend his neck to one side and raise it from the other side. The first one who will hear it will be a man who is busy in setting right the cistern meant for supplying water to the camels. He will swoon and the other people will also swoon. Then Allah will send down rain, which will be like dew and there will grow out of it the bodies of people. Then the trumpet will be blown again, and they will stand up and begin to look around.”  

A Third Trumpet?

There is a minority view among the scholars, which says that the Trumpet will be blown thrice – the first Trumpet where people will be terrified, the second, when people will faint (swoon) and die, and the third, when people will be resurrected. But this is based on a weak hadith.

The proponents of a third Trumpet said their view is also based on the difference they noted between the above az-Zumar verse which mentioned about swooning alone, and the an-Naml verse below which talked about being terrified alone, alluding to the existence of a third terrifying Trumpet.

“And (remember) the Day on which the Trumpet will be blown, and all who are in the heavens and all who are on the earth, will be terrified except him whom Allah will (exempt). And all shall come to Him, humbled” [Quran al-Naml (27):87]

But the fact that swooning is mentioned in one verse and terror is mentioned in another does not mean, according to most scholars, that they will not happen at the same time when the Trumpet is blown for the first time. Rather they will happen at the same time, so when the Swooning Trumpet is blown the people will be terrified, and will swoon as a result and die.

Then they will remain in that situation for 40 periods of time (the narrator is not certain whether that time period is in days, months or years) as decreed by Allah. Their bodies will decay within this period until there is nothing left but the bone from the base of the coccyx, which is a round bone at the base of the spine.

Then Allah will send a cloud that will release rain, and when the water reaches this bone, the body will grow from it like a plant grows and they will be recreated from this bone, just as Allah created them the first time, for He is able to do all things.

Then a second Trumpet will be blown to signal the Resurrection, and the souls will return to their bodies and will come forth from their graves and hasten to the place of gathering.

If the one who most feared Allah, said, “How can I be at ease when the one who blows the Trumpet (Angel Israfil), has put it to his mouth, bent his forehead and inclined his ear, waiting to see when he will be ordered to blow it?” – as narrated by al-Tirmidhi and others – then what about us who are weak and fall short?

We ask Allah to make us among those who will not be grieved by the greatest terror when the angels will meet them (with the greeting), “This is your Day which you were promised.” [Quran al-Anbiya (21):103].

Welcome to the Post-Truth World Order!

I had to scratch my head going through the materials while doing research for my article on the rapid development in Pengerang for Focus Malaysia, which was published early this month.

Apart from the confusion between what is Pengerang Integrated Complex (PIC) and Pengerang Integrated Petroleum Complex (PIPC), the question of whether the Saudi’s state-run oil and gas behemoth, Aramco will participate in the Refinery and Petrochemical Integrated Development (Rapid) project at the PIC added a further headache. And now my conclusion is the Rapid project in Pengerang will indeed be a rapid development, with or without the participation of Aramco.

To put the issue in perspective:

  • First, since late last year, we have had the morale boosting news that has further fuelled the sense of optimism in the oil and gas (O&G) sector in Malaysia that Petronas is set to make a final investment decision (FID) to bring in Aramco as its partner for the Rapid project, which is part of the PIC, which in turn is part of the bigger PIPC.
  • Next, in early January this year, came the comment from the Johor Petroleum Development Corporation (JPDC) CEO, Mohd Yazid Ja’afar, in my interview with him that ‘we were advised by Petronas that the Rapid project is progressing according to schedule and as of early January 2017, the progress update for PIC is at around 54% completion’.  I took this to mean there is really no problem for Petronas to complete the remaining 46% on schedule by early 2019, as it is not starting from scratch. And with the improved global oil prices expected this year, Petronas would have the wherewithal to finance the Rapid project on its own in the event that Aramco declines to participate in the planned partnership.
  • Then a week after the interview with Yazid, two seemingly contradictory news entered the fray – one from the Wall Street Journal quoting sources that Aramco has scrapped plan to partner Petronas in the Rapid project, and a Reuters’ report again quoting sources that Aramco has merely shelved the plan for the project.
  • In their response, both Petronas and Aramco said they would not comment on rumour or speculation, with the latter emphasising that it would continually evaluate new businesses.

Despite their response, post-truth phenomenon which one would normally associate with the Brexit vote and the Trump Administration started to pour in, which among other things, asserts without solid proof that Middle Eastern investors were losing confidence in Malaysia or Arab investors were fleeing the country or many other versions to that effect.

This has caught the ire of Second Finance Minister Johari Abdul Ghani who said the project was never led by the Saudis in the first place. He said Petronas had been executing it on its own “since Day One”.

“The funding of this project until its completion has always been based solely on Petronas’ own strength. The possibility of having Aramco as a partner to share the project was only an option. Since Petronas could not agree to some of the terms, the two parties decided to stop the negotiations and move on.”

He said Aramco and Petronas could “always revisit the negotiations” if they could come to an agreement at a later stage.

“Sometimes, in a negotiation or venture, we don’t get the terms that we want, and this is normal,” he said.

“We need to make sure that foreign investors coming into our country will create win-win situations for us and them. Things cannot be one sided.”

Taking into account that King Salman of Saudi Arabia will be visiting Malaysia soon, Johari’s explanation makes more sense. It is normal for a huge project like Rapid that takes the proposed form of an international joint venture (IJV) will have problems in negotiations, and normal too for Head of the respective governments in the IJV to help smoothen the problems.

Rapid momentum at the Pengerang Integrated Petroleum Complex (PIPC)

 Despite the challenging global economic climate and the controversy over attracting foreign direct investments (FDIs) which have caused the big global boys to dither on final investment decisions, the Johor Petroleum Development Corporation (JPDC) tasked with developing the Pengerang Integrated Petroleum Complex is optimistically on the ball to create momentum by wooing small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) to partake in the development of the Complex.

Normally, the strategy is to get the big players to come first and then the SMEs will follow suit in their supporting and complementing roles. However, different circumstances require different strategies and that is why while understandably waiting for the big boys to arrive at a final decision, the JPDC ingeniously decides to welcome the SMEs first.

These days, the head honcho of the JPDC – a federal agency created under the Prime Minister’s Department, with the main mandate to plan and develop strategies for downstream O&G development in Johor – doesn’t have the luxury to think about other matters.

His mind is singularly focused on coordinating and driving the execution of development projects to make the PIPC situated on the southeastern side of Johor, Malaysia’s premier downstream O&G hub in the region.

A veteran of O&G with 15 years of experience as an engineer in Shell, and now helming the JPDC as its Chief Executive since 2012, Mohd Yazid Ja’afar has his job cut out for him when he and his team have to ensure that PIPC’s refining activity is operationally ready by early 2019. This is the next key milestone after the commencement of storage and trading activities in PIPC in April 2014 that has marked the start of PIPC operations.

Flurry of optimism bodes well for the Oil & Gas sector

After being in the doldrums since global oil prices plummeted from a peak of around US$115 per barrel in mid June 2014 to US$68 six months later, and hit rock bottom at US$26 in February 2016, the O&G sector is now brimming with optimism in Malaysia.

Analysts say the government’s unwavering focus – in the face of a challenging global economic climate – on developing a world-class O&G hub at Pengerang in Johor, which is envisioned to be similar to the Amsterdam -Rotterdam – Antwerp (ARA) model that has areas of refining, storage and blending capacities as well as market access, is responsible for this flurry of optimism.

The idea of developing the Pengerang Integrated Petroleum Complex (PIPC) as a driver of the country’s quest to be a regional O&G hub was conceived way back in 2007 during the heyday of rising oil prices.

The 20,000 acre PIPC was launched in 2012 amid much fanfare as part of the Economic Transformation Programme, making it the largest integrated greenfield development in a single location, equivalent to 3,500 football fields.

Pengerang was chosen due to its strategic location near shipping lanes, deep-water port facilities, large acreage and close proximity to regional demand centres.

Meanwhile, the Pengerang Integrated Complex (PIC) – part of PIPC covering an area of 6,242 acres – is a US$27-billion mega development that includes the Rapid project and six associated facilities.

It will complement the existing infrastructures, attract foreign companies to invest and invite potential collaborations with global partners in logistics and product distribution.

This is turn will spur the growth of Malaysia’s O&G downstream sector, thus pushing the nation into a new frontier of technology and economic development.

While development at the PIPC is within the purview of JPDC, PIC, on the other hand, is handled by the national oil company Petronas, being one of its key projects that would deliver future growth for itself and at the same time, complements the southern Johor economic corridor.

However, with the plummeting of global oil prices starting in the second half of 2014, many observers opined that countries like Malaysia, which are net exporters of oil and are very dependent on oil revenues to finance the growth of their economy, would be badly hurt.

Doomsayers were fast and furious in saying that with the upstream business of exploration and production (E&P) adversely affected with falling oil prices, the government and Petronas will be in dire strait to cough up the fund needed to develop the PIPC and PIC respectively. Reading their prognosis, it seems as if it is the end of the world for the O&G sector in Malaysia.

To the credit of the government and Petronas, they do not pay heed to this pessimism. On the contrary, they continue to strive and work hard to make the vision of a regional O&G downstream hub in Pengerang a reality by remaining steadfast in pursuing this vision and never once put a halt to the project, even when oil prices hit their bottom at US$26 per barrel in February 2016.

In an interview with FocusM, JPDC’s Chief Executive, Mohd Yazid Jaafar, says falling oil prices will definitely affect the upstream business associated with E&P, but it is actually a boon to the development of the downstream business.

“This is because the cost of developing and running refineries and petrochemical plants is much lower now. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) and the feedstock are cheaper too. Thus, the upside now is in the downstream sector.

“Moreover, projects such as the PIPC are the drivers behind decreasing federal dependencies on commodities, as we won’t be relying on locally produced crude oil. We’ll be importing (which is cheaper), adding value by processing the materials onsite, and basically moving Malaysia up the chain.” he adds.

The global oil market has been riding on a wave of euphoria after the Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (Opec) announced on Nov 30 last year that it would cut production of crude oil by 1.2 million barrels per day (bpd) beginning Jan 2017 for a period of six months. On Dec 10, Opec managed to secure agreements from some non-Opec members including Russia to cut another 600,000 bpd, making a total cut of 1.8 millon bpd.

This cut would help to clear the long-standing glut of production and high inventory levels of crude oil globally and lift prices. But Opec warned that although the production cut would speed-up the re-balancing of the global oil market, it would not result in demand exceeding supply until the second half of this year.

But this is a good enough New Year present for the O&G sector in Malaysia, as it would mean oil prices will stabilize high enough to allow for the resumption of high E&P activity at the upstream level, spurring greater level of confidence and optimism in the industry.


p.s. So why do I give a heading of post-truth world order for this article? Post-truth politics/philosophy is now an emerging subject in political science and philosophy in some universities of the world. Its genesis began in the aftermath of the great recession of 2008 in which the divide between the have and the have-not was at its greatest and global household debt was at its highest due to the easy money policy brought about by quantitative easing (QE) of the US Fed that had driven interest rate to the lowest allowing people to borrow as if there is no tomorrow. All these caused dissatisfaction and deep seated grievances directed, whether rightly or wrongly, at the establishment. With social media rearing its ugly head, the situation is ripe for demagogues to exploit the social media and use it effectively by tapping into these deep-seated grievances. Thus, truth is no longer based on real objective facts but on who has the loudest voice in the social media. No wonder President Trump is the only US President who is very fond on the verge of addiction in using Twitter, Facebook etc in making his official pronouncements.



Johor Petroleum Development Corp wants them to participate first before big boys come a-calling

By Jamari Mohtar

Focus Malaysia | February 4, 2017


DESPITE challenging times facing the oil and gas (O&G) industry, the Johor Petroleum Development Corp (JPDC) tasked to develop the Pengerang Integrated Petroleum Complex (PIPC) is pushing ahead to woo small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) to develop the mammoth complex.

Normally, the strategy is to get the big players to come aboard first, followed by SMEs in support and complement roles. However, different circumstances require different strategies, and that is why while waiting for the big boys to make their final investment decision, JPDC has rolled out the carpet to welcome the SMEs first.

These days, Mohd Yazid Ja’afar, CEO of JPDC – a federal agency created under the Prime Minister’s Department, with the main mandate to plan and develop strategies for downstream O&G development in Johor – doesn’t have the luxury to think about other matters.

His is focused on coordinating and driving the execution of development projects to make the PIPC situated on the southeastern side of Johor Malaysia’s premier downstream O&G hub in the region.

Helming the JPDC since 2012, Mohd Yazid Ja’afar has his job cut out for him, as he and his team have to ensure PIPC’s refining activity is operationally ready by early 2019. This is the next key milestone after the commencement of storage and trading activities in PIPC in April 2014.

Platform for SMEs

Mohd Yazid tells FocusM about anchoring development on SMEs and the people of Johor.

“We want SMEs to treat PIPC as a platform to provide them with opportunities to realise their own visions. Just discuss with us your plan and we will help you to realise your vision through three industrial parks that our investors are going to set up this year at PIPC,” he says.

Launched in 2012, the 20,000-acre PIPC is part of the Economic Transformation Programme, making it the largest integrated greenfield development in a single location, equivalent to 3,500 soccer fields.

The industrial parks, occupying a total of 2,879 acres would provide space for investors of future downstream and support services to operate. “Our approach is to dedicate certain area of the industrial park for a particular sector SME in the value chain to interact and do business with the providers of core activities of PIPC in an inclusive and integrated way,” adds Mohd Yazid.

They are:

  • Dialog-Sungai Rengit Industrial Estate operated by Dialog Group Bhd. This 333 acres industrial park can accommodate petroleum and chemical storage facilities & warehouses, petrochemical manufacturing industries, bottling and drumming plants, and open yard storages;
  • Spektrum Budi-Pengerang Maritime Industrial Park to be developed on 1,760 acres of reclaimed land for activities like fabrication yard, oil terminal, warehousing and light industries; and
  • JCorp-Pengerang Industrial Park operated by the state-owned enterprise Johor Corporation (JCorp) for the first phase of the development on 786 acres.

Work on phase 1 of the first two industrial parks will start this month and phase 2 in January next year. JCorp started the application process for the development of JCorp-PIP late last year.

JPDC is working with several state-owned enterprises such as Perbadanan Islam Johor Holdings (PIJH) to provide spaces for bumiputera incubators.

It is also collaborating with JCorp to develop an area in PIPC for SMEs and downstream industries in the O&G supply chain, including those in the petrochemicals.

The idea is to create an ecosystem for different industries to complement each other. To bring this idea to life, it is also working with providers of services like communications and information technology to provide the right support.

“The state government-linked companies (GLCs) are the best partners for PIPC at this stage but private players are more than welcome as well. JPDC has engaged with various manufacturing association and groups including the Malaysian Plastics Manufacturers Association (MPMA) and we would like to urge private players to take advantage of the opportunities that such an ambitious project presents.

“For the GLCs, this project is a chance to help them monetise their land. All they need to do is develop the land and provide a space for the industries. For private players, PIPC offers an upside opportunity for them to come in as active participants along the value chain,” says Mohd Yazid.

With dedicated Government forums from both Federal and State to fast track development at the PIPC, the JPDC has been working hand in glove with the Johor state and federal authorities to provide the needed infrastructure for the people and workers at the PIPC.

These currently include the construction of a Taman Bayu Damai Police Station (to be completed in April this year), the new 4-lane dual carriageway ring road (end June 2017) and Health Clinic at Sungai Rengit (end Dec 2017). These are no ordinary public infrastructures but specialised ones to meet and adapt to the kind of dangers, mishaps or investigations that are unique to a mammoth, integrated complex such as PIPC.

The Johor Menteri Besar, Dato’ Mohamed Khaled Nordin recently launched the PBT Pengerang, the Pengerang local authority on Jan 16. This new local authority in Pengerang comprises people with the experience, expertise and track record of developing industrial park in Pasir Gudang that will help further improve the overall effectiveness and efficiency of PIPC’s development and management.

“The Johor State government intends to position the development in Pengerang as the catalyst for growth for the east Johor corridor. It hopes to transform the area into an economic district of global importance. The strategies on SMEs and public infrastructures are part of the transformation effort,” says the Chief Executive.

Global players

So what about the participation of global players in the O&G industry? JPDC’s head honcho admits that SMEs wouldn’t come aboard without big-name global companies participating in the PIPC project.

“Our strategy is to ensure that there is the presence of Fortune 500 companies to anchor the development. Their presence will definitely create confidence not only to fellow Fortune 500 companies but also the local and international SMEs to set up base in PIPC. And we already have two,” says Mohd Yazid.

Petroliam Nasional Berhad has been anchoring the development of the Refinery and Petrochemical Integrated Development (Rapid) project since 2012.

The other big player is Royal Vopak of Netherlands which together with Dialog Group Bhd and Johor State Secretary Incorporated (SSI), had formed a consortium since 2012 to build the Pengerang Deepwater Terminal (PDT), which has been operating since 2014.

Mohd Yazid says JPDC has seen a lot of interest from local and foreign potential invstors.

“However, due to falling global oil prices and a slowdown in China’s economy, some of the potential investors are a wait-and-see stance before making their final decisions.”


Rapid on track despite Aramco blow

THE Johor Petroleum Development Corp (JPDC) is confident the progress of the Refinery and Petroleum Integrated Development (Rapid) project in Pengerang Johor will not be affected, despite reports that Saudi Aramco had scrapped plans to partner Petronas in the project.

Speculation had been rife that Petrolium Nasional Bhd (Petronas) will offer a 50% stake to Saudi Arabia’s state-run oil and gas giant, Aramco in the US$27 bil (RM119.6 bil) Rapid project.

However, foreign news report a fortnight ago indicated the deal is dead in the water. Both quoting sources, The Wall Street Journal said Aramco had scrapped its plan to partner Petronas in the Rapid project, while a Reuters’ report said the Saudi company had merely shelved the plan.

Nevertheless, JPDC officials are optimistic that with improving global oil prices expected this year, Petronas would have the resources to finance the project on its own even if Aramco scraps the planned partnership.

“We were advised by Petronas that the Rapid project is progressing according to schedule and as of early January 2017, the progress update for PIC is at around 54% completion,” JPDC’s CEO Mohd Yazid Ja’afar tells FocusM.

This mirrors the national oil corporation’s statement that the project is going ahead. “Petronas would like to clarify that its Pengerang Integrated Complex project will continue to be the focus of its downstream growth agenda in the coming years,” it said in its statement to Reuters. However, the statement made no reference to Aramco.

Aramco said it would not respond to rumour or speculation on the matter, emphasising that it would continually evaluate new businesses. It’s possible move to suspend plan for the Malaysian venture comes at a time when Petronas is struggling with the depressed oil price. Early last year, Petronas announced it would cut spending by up to RM50 bil over the next four years.

Rapid is part of PIC, and both are within the much larger Pengerang Integrated Petroleum Complex.


The curious case of Donald Trump: Is polling a useless predictor of outcome?

By Jamari Mohtar | Nov 10, 2016

The reliability of political polling to predict the outcome of an election is put into question when despite and in spite of most polls predicting Hillary Clinton as the favourite to win, albeit in a close fight because all polls are within their margin of error, Donald Trump against all odds clinched the trophy of the presidency.

Before we come to the conclusion that polls are a useless predictor of outcome, let’s hear some quotable quotes on statistics:

“There are lies, damned lies and statistics.” Mark Twain

 “It is the mark of a truly intelligent person to be moved by statistics.”  George Bernard Shaw

 “Smoking is one of the leading causes of statistics.”  Fletcher Knebel

I like most the quote by Fletcher Knebel because it hinted at arriving at something with no concrete substance as the aim of statistics, and to wit, we are all indeed “smoked” by the polls that said Hillary Clinton has a 90% chance of winning the presidency on the eve of Election Day.

Ignoring historical precedent at one’s own peril

 There are more than one ways to predict the outcome of presidential election other than polls.

A few hours before the results of some exit polls were announced on Election Day, I told friends through one of my WhatsApp groups that Hillary Clinton might not be elected as President, if we go by historical precedent.

Since term limit was imposed in 1947 – curbing presidential term to no more than two terms (eight years) – there has never been an instance where a Democratic presidential nominee won an election after eight years of incumbency by a Democratic president.

That is why Clinton lost after eight years of a Democrat Obama; Al Gore too (2000 election) after eight years of a Democrat Bill Clinton; and finally Hubert Humphrey (1968) after eight years of Democrats John Kennedy and Lyndon Johnson.

Whereas Donald Trump has a greater chance to win because there is one instance of history in which a Republican nominee won the election after eight years of incumbency of a Republican presidency. Who was he? None other than the one term President HW Bush who won in the 1988 election after eight years of Republican Ronald Reagan.

I am an ardent fan of history (and of ‘isteri’ too) although I’m aware that students pooh-pooh the study of history, one reason being it does not make you fabulously wealthy as compared to the study of law or medicine although I have come across poor lawyers and poor medical doctors. But as the outcome of the recent US presidential election, the Brexit vote and in fact most significant global events – even significant event at the personal level – have shown, one ignores history at one’s own peril.

This peril of ignoring history is famously encapsulated in the adage that history has a tendency to repeat itself. Even the natural phenomena of life have a habit of repeating themselves such as the repetition in the observable change in the days following the nights, of being healthy followed by being sick, of birth and death, and the boom and bust of the economic/business cycles.

Nonetheless, I’m not that naïve to believe that historical precedent is the only thing that matters. My view of history is as follows:

History seldom moves in a linear fashion. And that is why we don’t see new changes or new things everyday. Instead it moves in gradual non-linear twists and turns, giving us glimpses of an approaching historically repeating event in the making, where we feel things on the surface are the same as of yesteryears, yet with some qualitative differences in their essence. Once we get to feel this sensation of the same yet different, there will be many more non-linear twists and turns for years, before the full force of the repetition occurs.

At times history does not repeat itself at all but propels forward with a quantum leap as if in a three dimensional setting that demolishes every known assumptions with the onset of new inventions and discoveries or simply paradigm shift, heralding the emergence of a brave new world instead of the repeated old world. This then becomes a new normal and ultimately a status quo normal when it keeps repeating time and again before another quantum leap occurs.

Statistical disinformation or the fallibility of statistics

Now, let’s come to the crunch. Are political polls really useless as a prediction of outcome? One cannot blame those who say they are when the example of the Brexit vote is still fresh in our mind. Despite the narrowing of margin in polls as voting drew near in June, the majority of the polls were still predicting the Remain in EU would win, albeit with a small margin.

And last year in Askenazi Israel, despite exit polls had forecast a dead heat, Bibi Netanyahu’s right-wing Likud Party still won a surprise victory over its main rival, the centre-left Zionist Union.

But if you understand statistics in the context of the probability theory, you’ll be humbled enough to know that a poll which said that Hillary Clinton has a 90% chance of winning the election does not mean it’s a sure 100% win and that the 10% chance of Clinton losing is something that can take place in the realm of reality. In this sense, there is really no big deal in blaming polls for the different outcome than what was expected, as long as the different outcome is not a regular feature of the US election polls.

The last time the polls were dead wrong was in 1948 when Harry Truman was predicted to have lost the election, with one newspaper having circulated an early edition the day after election, which showed Thomas Dewey to be the winner as its page one lead story. The editors had had a hell of time in withdrawing that early edition.

Hence, the utility of polls as a predictive tool lies not so much in its accurate predictive power of the outcome ALL THE TIME, but rather a prediction that is dead accurate MOST OF THE TIME – giving credence to the notion of the working in the real world of the principle of an exception to the rule.

We can’t even predict with dead accuracy what’s going to happen to us in the next few hours, and yet we don’t want to eat humble pie in accepting that our prediction – the prediction of mere mortals – might go wrong when it comes to election polls. That is indeed arrogance of the highest order!

Of course there is nothing wrong in doing a sort of post mortem to get the answer on why and where did the polls go wrong, especially after the humble pie has been eaten. The least that this will result is in the lessons learnt to ensure that there will be a less frequent occurrence of the principle of exception to the rule, which it is meant to be for otherwise we would be living in a world of chaos. And then He who is in Heaven will smile approvingly at our action to learn from past mistakes and to minimize the exceptions!

And that is why I’m deeply moved when an intelligent and scholarly man says, “It is the mark of a truly intelligent person to be moved by statistics.” (Ahem, ahem…)

A ‘new’ normal?

 So what went wrong? I’m in no position to tell what went wrong scientifically though I took statistics at the undergraduate level but didn’t do well in that subject (actually within a certain margin of error, I did well in the exam, hehe). Based on news reports in the US, it is not so much statistical error that is at fault but systematic error.

Statistical error has to do with the methodology the pollsters used which will lead to among others, the questions of the representativeness of the sample (sampling error), the sample size so chosen (size error) and the degree of freedom assumed which will impact the level of confidence in prediction.

Experts have all been unanimous that the statistical errors were all within the threshold of acceptability statistically. Remember that statistics is not a science that is about 100% accuracy all the time and if you perceived it as such and refused to accept the existence of acceptable statistical errors, you (the layman) are exhibiting arrogance of the highest order.

So it is the systematic error that is in question which in layman term can be phrased this way: “Yes, the sampling method was right, the sample size was right but what are the questions that you asked the voters? Is it leading questions such that the result of the poll is what you (the pollster) want to hear rather than asking objective questions that beget objective answers?

The systematic error could also be explained in the way the final consumers of the poll (not the pollsters themselves but the media and Clinton’s campaign staff who commissioned the pollsters) spin the pollsters’ analysis in accordance with their own agenda of supporting Hillary at all cost whether consciously or not.

In this regard, Trump actually made sense when he alleged during campaigning that the election was rigged but he was far off the mark when he said that these people (the pollsters) were interviewing each other rather than random voters.

Perhaps he gave this stupid reason out of desperation because the analysis of his own pollsters had shown him that he had a good chance of winning in the battleground swing states.

But instead of seeing all these in term of polling errors, I’m of the view that the 2016 US election is a watershed election because it sees the emergence of a new normal as exemplified in Trump getting away unscathed for:

  • Not showing his tax returns;
  • Speaking outrageously against women, the Blacks, Latinos, Muslims, China and Mexico, etc;
  • Mimicking the gestures of the handicaps and his opponents; and
  • ‘Brawling’ with his fellow Republicans including Speaker Ryan

Seeing the above as a new normal also implied that perhaps the Muslims and others too should ultimately judge him based on the policies that he will finally implement as a President, rather than based on his speeches during the heat of the moment when campaigning.

The fact is for about three months after winning the election he is not the President of the USA, Obama is. President elect Trump will be just as lame-duck as the real President during these three months until his inauguration in late January, and due to this, it does not make sense to be emotional about him during this period.

So how do we predict the outcome of a Trump presidency under this new normal scenario? Is there any historical precedent? There is, actually.

When Nikita Khrushchev succeeded Josef Stalin as the Soviet leader in 1954, his outrageous behavior at the UN Assembly in 1960 by repeated banging of his shoe in protest at a speech by the Philippine delegate, Lorenzo Sumulong, had made him a Soviet leader with a relatively brief reign as compared to his predecessors who ruled until their deaths.

So in light of a new normal and a historical precedent, the relevant question to ask about Trump in relation to predicting the outcome of his presidency is not so much whether he will be a one term president; rather the question is will he serve the full duration of his first term?

Only time will tell whether the latter outcome will see the light of day! So far since winning the election, Trump’s actions and sayings are presidential.

A global federation of educators to bridge gap between theory & practice of Islamic Finance


I am under the impression that fatwa-shopping refers to the e-fatwa that proliferates on the Internet where one can pick and choose the fatwa (religious edict of a Mufti) that is in alignment with one’s own view or interest.

This cherry picking of fatwa is often done to ‘whack’ the views of others that one differs from in matters of peripheral differences of opinion on some religious issues. Very often too, this pick-and-choose fatwa is used to reinforce one’s view in a controversial religious issue by exclaiming: “I told you so… this fatwa is proof that my position is right.”

But don’t be surprised that this phenomenon of fatwa-shopping may occur at the professional discipline of Islamic Finance.

The issue was first raised in 2009 when Sheikh Muhammad Taqi Usmani of the Accounting and Auditing Organization for Islamic Financial Institutions (AAOIFI), a Bahrain-based regulatory institution that sets standards for the global Islamic Finance industry, said that 85% of sukuk, or Islamic bonds, were un-Islamic.

This was later reiterated by financial journalist John Foster, a former editor of Islamic Business & Finance magazine. Here’s his account:

“… this new generation of Islamic bankers had cut their teeth in the City and Wall Street, and were used to creating sophisticated financial products.

“They often bumped heads with the Sharia scholars who authorised their products as Sharia compliant.

“However, these bankers had a way of dealing with this, as one investment banker based in Dubai, working for a major Western financial organisation explains:

“We create the same type of products that we do for the conventional markets. We then phone up a Sharia scholar for a Fatwa [seal of approval, confirming the product is Shari’ah compliant].

 “If he doesn’t give it to us, we phone up another scholar, offer him a sum of money for his services and ask him for a Fatwa. We do this until we get Sharia compliance. Then we are free to distribute the product as Islamic.”

But I don’t think most Syariah scholar sitting on the Syariah Supervisory Board (SSB) of Islamic financial institutions (IFIs) are easily compromised though I’m very much surprised by the magnitude of sukuk that Sheikh Muhammad Taqi Usmani claimed to be un-Islamic (read: non Syariah compliant).

Furthermore, there are genuine differences of opinion among the asatizah on some aspects of Fiqh Muamalat (Commercial and Transaction Laws in Islam).

In this regard, Malaysian small investors of Islamic financial products are fortunate because there is now the Ombudsman Financial Services (OFS), which began operation on Oct 1.

Bank Negara gave its seal of approval for the operationalization of the OFS to provide a fair and efficient avenue for financial consumers to resolve disputes against financial service providers.

This means consumers that have issue with the Syariah compliance of an Islamic financial product or service that they have bought may bring it up to the OFS, which is an independent redress mechanism with minimum formality for financial consumers to resolve disputes with financial service providers.

To those of my asatizah friends who happen to sit on SSB of IFIs, I hope you have the integrity to realise that religious injunctions are not for sale. My doa that you’ll be given the guidance by Allah to act in an honest, just and equitable manner, Aamiin.


A global federation of educators to bridge gap between theory & practice of Islamic Finance

By Jamari Mohtar

Guest Writer

Focus Malaysia | Oct 22, 2016


KL Declaration calls for Centre for Islamic Economics IIUM to play key role as Secretariat to the proposed International Federation of Islamic Economics and Finance Educators (I-FIEFE)

I NODDED in full agreement when the Kuala Lumpur Declaration at the end of the 11th International Conference on Islamic Economics and Finance (ICIEF) held in the capital of Malaysia recently, made a clarion call for the setting up of an International Federation of Islamic Economics and Finance Educators (I-FIEFE) to bridge the gap between the theory and practice of Islamic Economics and Finance, and produce qualified manpower for the industry.

The KL Declaration also calls for the Centre for Islamic Economics, International Islamic University, Malaysia (IIUM) to play a key role as the Secretariat for I-FIEFE. The secretariat is expected to commence work immediately with support from all parties including the government of Malaysia as well as agencies such as the Islamic Research and Training Institute (IRTI) of the Islamic Development Bank (IDB) Group and to have visible and tangible output within one year.

It’s high time that the practitioners of Islamic Finance pay heed to the fundamentals of Islamic Economics as the foundation of their activities in providing Islamic financial services and products so that both theory and practice move in unison and in equilibrium in order that Islamic banking and finance serve the genuine needs of the ummah.

“This requires policy measures that are not only pro-growth but also will ensure the attainment of equity and the socio-economic progress of all segments in society,” says Professor Mohamed Aslam Haneef, chairman of the Conference, who read what become known as the Kuala Lumpur Declaration on Oct 13, at the end of the three-day Conference.

Explaining on the theme of the Conference which is Rethinking Islamic Economics and Finance: Paving the Way Forward for Inclusive and Sustainable Development, Professor Aslam tells FocusM: “The rethinking theme is in response to the much muted unhappiness among academics and the common man who are increasingly critical of the present day practice of Islamic Banking and Finance (IBF).”

Professor Aslam who’s also IIUM’s Director, Centre for Islamic Economics also poses the question: “Do IFIs (Islamic financial institutions) play any developmental role and are helping to solve the major socio-economic problems of the ummah or just a bank for rich Muslims and corporations?

“For too long, IBF has become an ‘industry’ for the shareholders and moved away from it being a ‘movement’ with an ummatic vision. Yes, they are syariah-compliant but not necessarily ethically rich and concerned,” he sighs, reflecting a sense of disappointment at the way Islamic Economics and Finance have evolved since the inception of the first International Conference on Islamic Economics at Mecca 40 years ago which gave birth to the nascent discipline of Islamic Economics in the first instance, and IBF subsequently.

Among the priorities of the proposed I-FIEFE are:

  • Develop a global database of Islamic economics and finance education, which would cover programmes, curriculum and ‘talent’ development and is to be published as an ‘Islamic Economics and Finance Education’ report with the support of IRTI and other partners;
  • Holding international workshops/seminars and continuous education programmes for university lecturers to improve the standards of teaching and research in Islamic economics and finance, especially in the OIC-Member states; and
  • Conducting and coordinating greater research collaboration and academic/student exchange between member institutions.

The 11th Conference was held under the auspices of the IIUM, co organized with IRTI of the IDB Group, the International Association for Islamic Economics (IAIE) as well as the Ministry of Finance, Malaysia as a strategic partner.

Risk sharing to replace existing risk transfer/shifting system

In his keynote address at the Conference, Professor Abbas Mirakhor of the Malaysia-based International Centre for Education in Islamic Finance (INCEIF) which is dubbed by analysts as the Global University of Islamic Finance, lamented at how a risk transfer or a risk shifting in the context of risk sharing in a debt based system often ends up with the taxpayers assuming the risk without their knowledge.

“Although the 2013 Declaration of the 9th Conference at Istanbul stipulated that the essence of Islamic Economics is risk-sharing, nonetheless a risk sharing arrangement that is the result of a risk transfer taking place without the knowledge of the one who now assumes the transferred risk on why the risk is shifted to him or her, is obviously haram.

“The party that is being subject to a risk transfer must be informed at the beginning, not at the end of the transaction that he is subjected to a risk transfer in order to make the transaction Syariah-compliant,” adds Professor Abbas.

Hearing Professor Abbas, my mind was transported back to the time some 30 years ago when I was among the pioneer batch students of Islamic Economics at the IIUM where I often wondered why my lecturers sanctioned the idea of a loss-offsetting reserve for a theoretical Islamic Bank where in good times, the investors/depositors were not given their maximum rate of return but instead that amount which was more or less equivalent to what an investor would earn in an interest based system.

The excess that was being withheld from the investor was placed in a loss-offsetting reserve so that the theoretical Islamic Bank in bad times can still dish out a rate of return which was more or less the equivalent of the interest rate earned by an investor/depositor in a conventional bank via drawing out funds from the loss-offsetting reserve. And the investors/depositors were not told of this mechanism in advance.

The rate of return by definition is a variable amount whose final value is dependent on the risk undertaken for a given period of time by the depositors/investors. Because of this variability in amount, a distinction is made between an ex-ante rate of return and ex-post rate of return in which the former refers to an estimated as opposed to actual average rate of return over the life of an investment, while the latter refers to a calculation of the actual rate of return over the life of an investment. In cases where there was uncertainty as to the rate of return before the investment was made, one calculates the ex-post rate of return after the completion of the investment to determine how closely the investment matched its estimates.

The rate of interest, on the other hand is a fixed amount that an investor/depositor is always entitled to, regardless of the risk undertaken. Making the rate of return riskless is tantamount to transforming it into an interest rate, for in economics, a riskless rate of return is another name for interest rate.

Granted that the first Islamic bank needed to use interest rate as a shadow rate of return for benchmarking purpose, otherwise its viability would be affected at its pioneering stage, it would be mind boggling that this need for a shadow rate of return based on the movement of interest rate is still justified after 30 years of Islamic banking, and with the mushrooming of Islamic banks the world over.

Continuing this practice goes against the grain of economic theory because in conventional economics, it is for the rate of interest to follow the rate of return instead of the other way round. For instance, when the rates of return are high, people will move their funds out of a debt system like banking to the equity system like the stock exchange, and this in turn will drive up the interest rate to stop the exodus of funds to the equity market. Conversely, when rates of return are falling, people will move their funds out of the equity market to the banking system. This exodus of funds into the banking system in turn will drive down the interest rates.

It is on this basis that Muslim economists are unanimous in declaring that interest rate is an institutional reality rather than an economic necessity! The rate of return, on the other hand, is both an economic necessity and an institutional reality.

No risk, no reward

The above discussion has ramification on the providers of Islamic financial services and products in that they have a duty to inform their clients on the risk profile of their products and services based on the maxims of “no risk, no reward” and “high risk, high reward”.

Risk here refers to the total or partial erosion of the initial capital of their clients while reward refers to the prospect of earning more than an average rate of return by their clients. It is impossible for all financial institutions (FIs) including Islamic ones to guarantee at the same time both the preservation of the original capital, along with earning a more than average rate of return.

This is the point that lay investors seldom realise and thus were easily taken in by the promise of such double guarantees by unscrupulous representatives of FIs, which were often the cause of global financial instability if this subtle “trickery” occurs on a massive scale.

That is why the Singapore’s Monetary Authority (MAS) has made it mandatory on FIs to rate their financial services and products based on the risk profile of their clients in order to educate them on the risky nature of all their products and services.

At one end of the spectrum are products that guarantee the preservation of the initial capital with a modest rate of return for risk-averse investors, while at the other end are the products meant for risk-taker investors that offer a more than average rate of return with no guarantee of preservation of the original capital. Hence, risks are known and shared equitably.


Financial ombudsman scheme may mitigate fatwa-shopping in IBF

THE Ombudsman for Financial Services (OFS), which has commenced operations since October 1, as the operator of the financial ombudsman scheme, may put a damper to the phenomenon of fatwa-shopping in the Islamic Banking and Finance landscape in Malaysia, if the phenomenon indeed exists here.

Bank Negara gave its seal of approval for the operationalization of OFS beginning October 1 in a media statement on Sept 28. Its operationalization comes under the Financial Services Act 2013 and Islamic Financial Services Act 2013 to provide a fair and efficient avenue for financial consumers to resolve disputes against financial service providers.

The phenomenon of fatwa shopping arises because Syariah scholars sit on the Syariah Supervisory Board (SSB) of Islamic Financial Institutions (IFIs) where their decision on the syariah compliance of the Islamic financial products is very crucial to the offering of the products or services by the IFIs. Many of these scholars are highly regarded, with their opinions having the potential to move markets.

Hence, some analysts have raised some concerns that since syariah scholars are generally employed directly by the financial institutions, their independence can be compromised, since bank managers use their influence to gain more acceptable opinions. This has been commonly referred to as “fatwa-shopping” or “Shariah advisory à la carte”.

The issue was first raised in 2009 when Sheikh Muhammad Taqi Usmani of the Accounting and Auditing Organization for Islamic Financial Institutions (AAOIFI), a Bahrain-based regulatory institution that sets standards for the global industry, said that 85% of Sukuk, or Islamic bonds, were un-Islamic.

With the operationalization of OFS in Malaysia, this phenomenon can be mitigated as consumers that have issue with the Syariah compliance of an Islamic financial product or service that they have bought may bring it up to the OFS. This is because OFS serves as an independent redress mechanism with minimum formality for financial consumers to resolve disputes with financial service providers.

But as pointed out by Associate Professor Dr Syed Musa from the IIUM’s Institute of Islamic Banking and Finance (IIiBF), the OFS is an alternative to, and not a replacement for legal actions taken in a court of law, and disputes filed must not exceed RM 250,000.

“The key is still the focus on effective Syariah/corporate governance mechanisms, transparency and product disclosure towards customer care and intimacy to mitigate the Syariah non-compliance risk, without unduly inhibiting the innovative spirit of the industry to come out quickly with various range of products to suit the customers’ varied needs,” he adds.

“The availability of this dispute resolution mechanism may also lower the cost of Islamic financial products since they are viewed as relatively costly vis-à-vis conventional financial products, albeit a perceived one, as brought up by one of the speakers in the Conference.”

Dr Syed Musa is referring to the 11th International Conference on Islamic Economics and Finance held in Kuala Lumpur from Oct 11 to 13. The relatively lower cost alluded by him could be the result of the harmonization process in which both the Islamic and conventional financial products come under the ambit of the OFS.

The services of the OFS are offered free of charge to financial consumers. It operates in accordance with the principles of independence, fairness and impartiality, accessibility, accountability, transparency and effectiveness. A retired Federal Court Judge, Tan Sri James Foong has been appointed as its Chairman.

Yajuj wa Majuj (Gog and Magog) and its relations to Askenazic Communism & Zionism – the peak of the second wave (Part 3)

Overview of Part 2

We have seen how the Askenazim traced their descent from the Khazars, and the Khazars in turn were the descendants of Gog and Magog.

From the Islamic perspective, Gog and Magog had already existed before the arrival of Dhul-Qarnayn at the mountain barriers of the Caucasus. When Dhul-Qarnayn met the people living there, they were beseeching him to protect them from the treachery and chicanery of Gog and Magog. This presupposes the existence of Gog and Magog before the arrival of Dhul-Qanayn on the scene. Let me reproduce again the relevant Quranic verse:

“[And he marched on] till, when he reached [a pass] between the two mountain-barriers, he found beside them a people who could scarcely understand a word [of his language]. They said: ‘O Dhul-Qarnayn, indeed Gog and Magog are spoiling this land. May we, then, pay unto thee a tribute on the understanding that thou wilt erect a barrier between us and them?’” [Quran, Alkafh (18): 92-94]

We can derive several conclusions from the above verse. These are:

  • Gog and Magog were already in existence before Dhul-Qarnayn’s arrival at the Caucasus.
  • The tribe beseeching help from Dhul-Qarnayn was not Gog and Magog. Instead they were the indigenous people there.
  • After Dhul-Qarnayn had built an Iron Wall there, they lived peacefully for quite a long time, free from the mischiefs of Gog and Magog.
  • In the early 7th Century of the Christian Era (CE), Gog and Magog appeared in this quarantined area in the form of the Kazaria Kingdom.
  • This implies that the descendants of the indigenous tribe that had met Dhul-Qarnayn centuries Before the Christian Era (BCE) had been vanquished by the Khazars by the 7th Century CE.

At this point, a question arises: Who was the progenitor of Gog and Magog? The answer is Gog and Magog traced their descent from Yafith (Japheth), one of the sons of Prophet Noah (alaihi salam).

The great Muslim scholar, Ibn Kathir [born 1300 (701H), died 1373 (774H)], when discussing the origins of Yajuj wa Ma’juj – the people who traditionally inhabited the area between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, which was where the Khazar Kingdom was originally situated – in his historical work, Al-Bidayah wa’l-Nihayah (The Beginning and the End), specifically states that “Gog and Magog are two groups of Turks, descended from Yafith (Japheth), the father of the Turks, one of the sons of Prophet Noah (a.s.).”

Some historians also believe that in addition to being the father (ancestor) of the Turks, Japheth is also the father of the Europeans. Some opine that the Scythians (a minor rival of the Greeks) who lived near the area in ancient times before even the time of Dhul-Qarnayn and who were descended from Japheth, were Gog and Magog.

By the time of Dhul-Qarnayn’s journey to the Caucasus, Gog and Magog was a conglomerate of nomadic tribes living near the Caucasus and known for being ruthlessly brutal, exclusively belligerent and skillfully talented at flattery, chicanery and treachery. Once Dhul-Qarnayn’s Iron Wall had been built, the playing and killing fields of Gog and Magog were very much restricted to the northern areas outside the one quarantined by the Wall; hence the ‘honorific’ title given to Khazaria as the Kingdom of the North.

Wave after wave of Gog and Magog…

And that’s why in all my post on the Askenazim, it has to be remembered that the waves of Gog and Magog I’m referring to are the ones after the Dhul-Qarnayn’s era especially in relation to the Islamic eschatology of the coming of Gog and Magog during the period preceding the End of History and the End of Time.

To recap, the first wave of Gog and Magog post Dhul-Qarnayn took the form of the Khazars whose appearance in the early 7th century CE (at about the same time of Muhammad’s prophethood) was prophesized by Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) in an authentic Hadith narrated by Zainab bint Jahsh (r.a): “… once the Prophet (pbuh) awoke from such a sleep that his face was red and he said: ‘There is none worthy of worship except Allah. Woe to the Arabs, from the great evil that is approaching them. Today a gap as big as this has opened up in the wall of Yajuj and Majuj …’ and the Prophet (pbuh) indicated the size of the hole by forming a ring with his index finger and thumb.” (Bukhari).

This first wave of Gog and Magog ended in the 9th century CE when the Kazars had to flee to Eastern Europe particularly Hungary, Poland and southern Russia from the onslaught of the Rus – an Asiatic tribe from Kiev – who destroyed and burnt to the ground the Kazaria Kingdom.

The second wave began in Europe when the remnants of the Khazars that were in Europe reinvented and transformed themselves into Askenazic Jews. This wave reached its zenith in the 18th century when an Askenazim – Rothschild – managed to monopolize the wealth of the world by means of flattery, chicanery and treachery via a cabal of his sons and descendants spread out throughout Europe.

The financial strength of the Rothschild combined with the political muscle of Zionism which was formed by other fellow Askenazi Jews in the 19th century were so formidable that it led to the establishment of the state of Israel in 1948 which in substance and essence is very different from the biblical ancient state of Israel.

The second wave of Gog and Magog ended with the establishment of the modern state of Israel in 1948. This is prophesized in the Quran when it made its second and last reference to Gog and Magog:

“And there is a ban on (the people of) a town which We destroyed (and the inhabitants were expelled) that they (the people of the town) shall not return (to reclaim the town) until Gog and Magog are released and they (eventually) descend from every height or spread in every direction.” [Quran, Al Anbiya (21): 95-96]

The above verse is very cryptic when it was first revealed in the time of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). This is so because the verse is in the nature of a prophecy (i.e. a future occurrence in 1948 in comparison to the 7th century when it was revealed).

The above verse clearly hints at a third return of the Jews in Jerusalem and must be read with the verse below in order to understand the third coming of the Jews in Jerusalem:

“And We gave warning to Banu Israil through revelation, that twice would they corrupt the (Holy) Land and be elated with mighty arrogance (and twice would they be punished)! When the first of the warnings came to pass, We sent you Our servants capable of terrible warfare. They entered the very inmost parts of your homes, and it was a warning fulfilled. And after a time We allowed you to prevail against them once again, and aided you with wealth and offspring, and made you more numerous. If you preserve in doing good you will but be doing good to yourselves; and if you do evil it will be done to yourselves. And so when the prediction of the second (period of iniquity) came true, (We raised new enemies against you and allowed them) to disgrace you utterly, and to enter the Temple as (their forerunners) had entered it once before, and to destroy with utter destruction all that they had conquered.” [Quran, Banu Israil (17): 4-7].

Even after the 1948 event had been fulfilled in the form the creation of the state of Israel, none of the Muslim scholars has ever interpreted the verse in this way until a contemporary Islamic scholar, Imran Hosein, in his book, Jerusalem in the Qur’an, published in 2002, interpreted it to mean that after the second expulsion of the Jews from Jerusalem in the 1st century CE (60 CE) in which the Temple there was destroyed a second time – this time by the Roman – the Jews will have a third opportunity to once again return to Jerusalem, but only with the assistance of Gog and Magog i.e. their release and eventual descent from every height or spread in every direction had facilitated this return.

Unlike their first two returns to the Holy Lands, their third return as elaborated by Benjamin Freedman (see Part 2 of this post) was preceded by their chicaneries and treacheries that had caused so much misery to the world in the spread of Communism since 1905, the continuation of World War I in 1916 and igniting World War II, just so that they can own a piece of real estate in the Holy Lands by expelling the Palestinians from their lands.

We are now living in the third wave of Gog and Magog in which their treachery and chicanery that were instrumental in their return to the Holy Land will deepen their mighty arrogance as manifested in the way they had brutalized and continue to brutalise the weakest segment of Palestinian society and subjugate the world into an elegance of silence on these atrocities.

Only Allah knows when this brutality of the Askenazic Zionists will end, as surely it will end, just like their first two returns had ended in their expulsion from the Holy Lands. My guess is this third wave of Gog and Magog will see the Askenazic Jews in Israel stooping so low and will stop at nothing in committing the worst kind of excesses and atrocities in Palestine until the whole world is brought to its feet by recognizing Jerusalem as the undivided capital of Israel (currently it is Tel Aviv). Up to this point, they had failed to make Jerusalem their capital. When their objective in making Jerusalem as their undivided capital is achieved, the stage is set for the fourth wave of Gog and Magog, which will see the Dajjal (Anti-Christ) entering the picture and playing a central role as the sole leader of Gog and Magog. I will touch on this at some other time based on some authentic Ahadith on Akhir Zaman.

Allahu Musta’an.

p.s      In Part Two, I have used a Jewish source (Benjamin Freedman) to highlight the havoc wreaked by Gog and Magog in Europe. The article below gives a good overview of this havoc from a Christian source. Read on…


The Ashkenazim

By Biblicism Institute

The chosen Hebrews were the ones God had the Old Covenant with (not converted Jews). They’re all dead.

“The LORD was very angry with Israel, and removed them out of his sight… And the LORD rejected all the seed of Israel, and afflicted them, and delivered them into the hand of spoilers, until he had cast them out of his sight.” (2 Kings 17:18,20)

Today, the Ashkenazim constitute the majority of those who are known as Jews.

Since they are not Hebrews, it is very important to understand what the bible and history have to say about them while bearing in mind that:

  • Abraham was a descendant of Shem – hence the term Semite or Shemite.
  • His scion Jacob and his twelve sons were the true biblical Hebraic Israelite nation with whom God had the Old Covenant (not with converted Jews)
  • The true Israelite nation no longer exists and their land inheritance expired with them.

This is what the Bible has to say about the Ashkenazim in Genesis 10:

“Now these are the generations of the sons of Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth: and unto them were sons born after the flood. The sons of Japheth: Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras. And the sons of Gomer: ASHKENAZ, and Riphath, and Togarmah. And the sons of Javan: Elishah, and Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim. By these were the isles of the Gentiles divided in their lands; every one after his tongue, after their families, in their nations.” (Emphasis Added)

Today’s Ashkenazi Jews, or descendants of Ashkenaz, are some of the GENTILES the bible speaks of. Why then do Ashkenazim call Christians and other non-Jews Gentiles while pinning on themselves the term Chosen People? Is it ignorance or deception? It’s definitely not ignorance. And if to those outside it looks like deception, to them it’s pure re-branding. The ultimate Chutzpah!

Consider the terrible irony!

Ashkenazic Jews (along with their Sephardic coreligionists) are themselves the Gentiles that many rabbis warn their congregations not to marry. To further the re-branding, they also call themselves Semites or Shemites when they’re JAPHETITES, which means they’re not Hebrews either. This re-branding is much like the way most of them – if not the majority of them – keep changing their last names every time they settle in a new country. The reason is simple and quite pragmatic. It’s a survival mechanism.

The Askenazim are a resilient roaming Turkic people. They have a knack for reinventing themselves. They first surfaced in world annals as the notoriously barbaric Scythians or Sakadeans depending on regional phonetic.

“Here there is no Gentile or Judahite, circumcised or uncircumcised, barbarian, Scythian, slave or free, but Christ is all, and is in all.” (Colossians 3: 11)

The word Scythian or Sakadean comes from the word Saka – with its Iranian verbal root Sak meaning to roam.

The Scythians settled in Central Eurasia which they conquered with their Gentile brother Togarmath and various other cousins expanding across a vast track of land that encompassed but was not limited to parts of present-day Turkey and Iran. Their Gentile brother Riphath along with their uncle Javan’s descendants settled in Greece.

Later on, they reinvented themselves and settled a land they would call Khazaria – from the word Qasar with its Turkic verbal root Qaz meaning to roam – following the break-up of the western Turkish Steppe Empire. Then, the country converted en masse to Judaism/ Pharisaism sometime between 740 and 920 AD just so they could remain independent of the two competing empires of that time: Christianity and Islam.

“Judaism was the most actively proselytizing religion…The most significant mass conversion occurred in the 8th century, in the massive Khazar kingdom between the Black and Caspian seas,” explained Jewish historian Shlomo Sand.

 Then, Sviatoslav I of Kiev destroyed Khazaria around 1048 and absorbed it into Kievan Rus’, a territory that would later become part of the Russian Empire.

In Imperial Russia, the Ashkenazim were kept under tight control and enclosed in the Pale of Settlement. Something the Ashkenazim never forgave Russia.

Biding their time, they nurtured their hatred and plotted their revenge along with a new reinvention. They became the power behind the heinous Bolsheviks who took over the Russian government in the 1910s and killed 66 million Christians including 200,000 members of the Christian clergy, and destroyed 40,000 churches according to famed Christian Russian writer Alexander Solzhenitsyn.

The great majority of the Bolsheviks were Russian Askenazi Jews such as Vladimir Lenin, Leon Trosky, Lev Kamenev, Gregory Zinoviev, Yakov Sverdlov, and Grigory Sokolnikov. They were financed by Ashkenazi bankers from New York and London such as Rothschild Bank and Jacob Schiff of Kuhn and Loeb & Co. who themselves championed the destructive ideology of the Ashkenazi Karl Marx and found it profitable to invest in Communism’s disastrous conquest of Russia while making a few bucks in the process by plundering the country via well placed agents who would later be known as “oligarchs“.

“You must understand, the leading Bolsheviks who took over Russia were not Russians. They hated Russians. They hated Christians. Driven by ethnic hatred they tortured and slaughtered millions of Russians without a shred of human remorse. It cannot be overstated. Bolshevism committed the greatest human slaughter of all time. The fact that most of the world is ignorant and uncaring about this enormous crime is proof that the global media is in the hands of the perpetrators.”

 – Alexandr Solzhenitsyn


Russia’s entire Soviet Empire collapsed in 1991. Thus the Ashkenazim succeeded in bringing Russia to its knees.

Revenge Round 1. Done.

Today, Russia is under fire for the conflict in Ukraine. A conflict that was started by the Ashkenazi Victoria Nuland in the US State Department with her neo-con Ashkenazi husband Robert Kagan working in the background via powerful organizations such as Project for a New American Century, the Brookings Institution, and Council on Foreign Relations. The Ashkenazi George Soros also contributed financially to the Ukrainian Maidan “Revolution”.

Their sole purpose is to destroy Russia once again by starting a fire in its underbelly, Ukraine. A fire they’re planning to spread into Russia proper via military and economic warfare. Why? Because Russia has had the gall to rise from its still warm Ashkenazi-induced ashes. And because Russia has had the temerity to arrest their well placed thieving agents known as “oligarchs” with some fleeing the country. And because Russia has had the audacity to impede the American war on Syria which was orchestrated by AIPAC for the benefit of Israel.

Revenge Round 2. In progress.

After the destruction of Khazaria, the Ashkenazim scattered East and West throughout Europe and reinvented themselves as Errant Jews or Wandering Jews – meaning Roaming (Khazarian/Sakadean or Scythian) Jews. That label had nothing to do with a longing for Palestine but a longing for Khazaria or perhaps a longing for a new land, any new land. Here’s an excerpt from Wikipedia:

In 1903 Theodore Herzl presented the British Uganda Program at the Sixth Zionist Congress in Basel.

In the late 1930s, the British Zionist League considered a number of other places where a Jewish homeland could be established. The Kimberley region in Australia was considered until the Curtin government (in office: 1941–1945) rejected the possibility.

With the support of the then Premier of Tasmania, Robert Cosgrove (in office from 1939), Critchley Parker proposed a Jewish settlement at Port Davey, in south west Tasmania. Parker surveyed the area, but his death in 1942 put an end to the idea.

The Jewish Autonomous Oblast set up in the Russian Far East in 1934, represented a Soviet approach to providing a Jewish homeland.

In the wake of World War 2, a great number reluctantly assimilated themselves throughout the Americas. However, the great majority migrated to Palestine where they created many terrorist groups such as the Irgun, the Stern gang and Haganah. They terrorized the Palestinian population, killed thousands upon thousands and forced hundreds of thousands out of their homes and into neighboring Arab countries. Consequently, they stole Palestine and renamed it Israel in order to reinvent themselves as Hebrews and hoodwink gullible Christians in the West.

In their adoptive countries outside of Israel, including the US and Europe, the Ashkenazim have become financial and influential powerhouses, not because they’re Jews – at heart the majority of them are really not religious at all and couldn’t care less – but because they’re a shrewd people. They have learned much from their roaming throughout history and they assimilate themselves fast and hard. They’re the ultimate Nomads.

Now could it be that, after two successive ideological failures in the forms of Communism and the current slow-motion destruction of Zionism in Israel, somewhere deep inside the minds of die-hard Ashkenazi leaders lies a plan for a new reinvention? Will that reinvention be the re-conquest of their Khazar Khaganate, a land that is now situated deep inside Russia and encompasses Ukraine and Crimea? Is that why Putin suddenly reattached Crimea to Russia? Will they be okay with just Ukraine?

Revenge Round 3? Jamais deux sans trois.



It seems that people today have forgotten that Ancient Israel, specifically the tribe of Judah, unlike Modern Israel and much like Biblical Israel’s offspring, the Christian Church, was a proselytizing nation which wanted people all over the world to know and pray to the true God of the Universe, even though at one point the conversion process had become totally corrupted because of the pharisaic teachings. Let’s hear Jesus:

“Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye compass sea and land to make one proselyte, and when he is made, ye make him twofold more the child of hell than yourselves.” Matthew 23:15

When these folks converted they didn’t miraculously become Judahites and Hebrews. How could anyone? The Ashkenazim of Khazaria like all the others who converted to the religion of the ancient Judahites only professed to adhere to the various rules of the faith. They maintained their own cultures and identities. Today they are known as Talmudic Jews and Torah Jews. See The Word Jew is NOT in the Bible.


The story of the Ashkenazi Khazars is detailed in the book The Thirteenth Tribe, a historical account by Jewish author Arthur Koestler. Enjoy the book by clicking on this link: The 13th Tribe.

Walking down memory lane on the Hajj of 2002 (1422H)

10 Zulhijjah 1437H | 12 Sept 2016

Today, 10 Zulhijjah 1437H (12 Sept 2016) is Eidul Adha, known in our part of the world as Hari Raya Haji or the Feast of the Sacrifice. Muslims the world over celebrate Eidul Adha to commemorate the ever readiness of Prophet Abraham (alahi salam) to submit to the Will of Allah pertaining to His command to sacrifice his only begotten son Ishmael (a.s.) which Abraham did, but was instantaneously turned to a miracle of the sacrifice of a ram, as the devoted father was about to slaughter his doting child.

However, being human, it was not easy for Abraham (a.s.) to do this. Along the way in his submission to Allah, Syaitan (the Devil) tempted Abraham and his family by trying to dissuade them from carrying out God’s commandment, and Abraham drove Satan away by throwing pebbles at him. In commemorating this rejection of Satan, stones are thrown at the symbolic pillars during the Stoning-of-the-Devil rite of the Hajj.

For Muslims who can make it to the hajj – one of the five Arkanul Islam (Pillars of Islam) – the pilgrimage is all woven around the trials and tribulations faced by Abraham and his family, i.e. Ishmael and Siti Hajar (Hagar, the wife of Abraham).

As the pilgrims are making their way back again to Mina after their overnight stay at Muzdalifah in the wee hours of 10 Zulhijjah, I’m overwhelmed with my own experience of my first and only pilgrimage to the Holy Lands in February to March of 2002 – a total of 34 days – some 14 years ago, that my mind keeps tracking on the movement of the pilgrims since the Day of Tarwiyah on 8 Zulhijjah (10 Sept 2016).

The Hajj in a nutshell

  • Hajj Season

The haj season is of three months. Syawal, Zulkaedah and Zulhijjah (the last three months of the Hijri Taqwim or Islamic calendar) are known as the months of hajj (bulan-bulan haji). This is to be distinguished from the Sacred Months, which are four with the addition of Rejab (the 7th month of the Hijri taqwim). The Saudi government added another month – Muharram (the first month of an Islamic new year) as the month of Hajj. This is not right but we can understand because it is not easy to clear the town of Mecca in a short time after a pilgrimage involving millions of people. During my time, there was a record of 10 million people in Mecca because it was a Hajj Akhbar (Major Hajj) in which the Day of Arafah fell on a Friday. The 7 million locals joined the foreign pilgrims of 3 million, resulting in a massive throng of crowds.

Friday itself is described as an Eid day in a hadith. The day of Arafah is only an Eid for those who are in Arafah because they are gathered there, unlike those from the nearby regions, who only gather on the Day of the Feast of Sacrifice. What is meant here is that if the day of Arafah falls on a Friday, it is two Eids in one, which is reminiscent of the Hajj Wida (Last Hajj) of the Prophet (peace be upon him) in which the Day of Arafah fell on a Friday. The Saudi’s motive in adding an additional month to the haj season is to ensure things get going for umrah (the lesser pilgrimage) by 1 Safar instead of 1 Muharam. Very utilitarian indeed!

  • The Hajj Rites Made Simple

The official start of the Hajj rites is on 8 Zulhijjah (Sat, 10 Sept 2016) known as the Day of Tarwiyah. Pilgrims, however, must perform the Tawaf Qudum (Welcome Tawaf) first. Tawaf is the rite of circumambulating around the Kaaba seven times in an anti-clockwise direction

Its official end is the Tawaf Wida (Goodbye or Last Tawaf). Tawaf Wida can be undertaken anytime after the second of the three Stoning-of-the Devil rites on 12 Zulhijjah (Nafar Awal) or after the Tawaf Ifadah with Sa’i rite (whichever comes later) has been performed.

But even after all these rites have been performed, one is still not a hujaj if one failed to perform the rite of Standing (Wukf) at Arafah. This is based on a hadith: “Hajj is Wukuf at Arafah.” (Bukhari & Muslim). One may be at Arafah in the morning of 9 Zulhijah but if one leaves Arafah before Zuhr, the Wukuf rite is deemed as not being performed because the time for the start of Wukuf rite is on the onset of Zuhr in Arafah (about 5.18pm Singtime/M’sian time). But it’s alright that after leaving Arafah before Zuhr, one comes back to Arafah at any time after Zuhr.

The end of Wukuf is before Fajr on 10 Zulhijah i.e. just before the Fajr azan (call to prayer) begins in Arafah. The best time (afdal) to perform Wukuf is during some part of the day on 9 Zulhijah (after Zuhr) and some part of the night of 10 Zulhijah. Hence it’s not advisable to leave Arafah before the setting of the sun (Maghrib) because it may affect the validity of one’s hajj. Bear in mind that a new day in Islam begins with the onset of Maghrib. So on the onset of Maghrib at Arafah during the Day of Arafah, it’s already 10 Zulhijjah.

Eidul Adha on 10 Zulhijah is known as the Feast of the Sacrifice. The stoning of the Devil rite first begins on this day. But this is different from the three days of the Stoning-of-the-Devil rite that begins on the first of the Tasyrik Days on 11 Zulhijah in that the stoning on 10 Zulhijjah involves one jamrat (pillar) only i.e. the largest Aqabah pillar.

The stoning rite on the days of the Tasyrik, which involves stoning seven times at each of the three pillars on each day (Jamrah Ula, Jamrah Wusta and Jamrah Aqaba), is compulsory on the first two days of Tasyrik (Nafar Awal i.e. 11 and 12 Zulhijjah) and it is optional on the third day (13 Zulhijah). This gives rise to a haj express package for those who need to go back to their home urgently by skipping the last stoning rite (on13 Zulhijjah) and then move to Mecca before the sunset of 12 Zulhijjah to do their Tawaf Ifadah with Sa’i (the walk between two hillocks at Mecca seven times), followed by the Tawaf Wida; or after the stoning rite on 10 Zulhijjah, they straight away go to Mecca for Tawaf Ifada with Sa’i, then come back to Mina on the 11 and 12 Zulhijah for the stoning rites, and then before sunset on 12 Zulhijjah, move to Mecca for Tawaf Wida.

After the stoning rite on 10 Zulhijah, the male pigrims will have to perform the tahalul, which involves shaving the heads. The tahalul also marks the end of putting on the ihram (unstitched two pieces of white clothing) garb and the permissibility for the donning of normal attires. But conjugal relation with spouse is still a no-no until tawaf ifada and sai have been completed.

Except for wukuf, it is all right if one misses all the other hajj rites provided penance (dam) for the missed rites is performed. Dam takes the form of fasting for a certain days or feeding the poor and needy.

The Day of Tarwiyah – 8 Zulhijah (Sat, 10 Sept 2016)

Millions of pilgrims in their white ihram garb in Mecca will make their way to Mina, a city of tents. They will spend the night there and occupy their time with proclaiming intermittently the talbiah (the proclaimation of Labaik kallahuma labaik.. Here I come oh Allah…), doing the wirid, zikir and doa (supplications), performing supererogatory prayers and reciting the Quran. Other than these, they all are encouraged to have a good rest in preparation for the fast-paced rites on the Day of Arafah and the Feast of the Sacrifice.

The Day of Arafah – 9 Zulhijah (Sun, 11 Sept 2016)

On the morning of the 9 Zulhijjah, all the pilgrims in Mina will make their way to Arafah, another city of tents. The Day of Arafah is also called the Day of Wukuf but it’s a misnomer to think that just because it is also called the Day of Wukuf, the Wukuf rite begins in the morning. Wukuf rite begins on the onset of Zuhr at Arafah. It is makruh (reprehensible) for the pilgrims to fast on the Day of Arafah. But for Muslims worldwide who do not perform the hajj, the fast of Arafah is highly recommended (sunnat muakad) because it will nullify all the sins of the previous year and the coming year.

On the onset of Zuhr in Arafah, the pilgrims will intermittently fill their time with proclaiming the talbiyah, doa, wirid, zikir, prayers and reciting the Quran. After performing the jamak qasr (combined and shortened) prayers, there will be a khutbah wukuf/Arafah (the wukuf/Arafah sermon) inside the tent. This will be followed by the standing (wukuf) at Arafah outside the tent where supplications of the mutawiff (hajj guides) will be greeted with chorus of Aamiin and accompanied by sobs and teary eyes of the pilgrims.

Another aspect of the Day of Arafah is Allah will accept all doas (supplications) done during the time of Wukuf, whether one performs the pilgrimage or not. Not one ulama or the classical jurists had ever suggested this to mean that one who supplicates outside Saudi Arabia (non pilgrims) needs to synchronize the timing of their doa with the time of Wukuf in Arafah. The classical jurists in this case were not literalists who were unaware of time difference but none has ever advocated that the supplication one makes outside Saudi Arabia must be synchronized with the time of Wukuf at Arafah in order for the supplication to be accepted.

It is only in this modern period due to the “smartness” of phone with a time converter app that the issue of sychronising with the time in Arafah was raised by “smart” people to ensure one gets the best time for one’s supplication to be fulfilled. This is analogous to the issue of debating the occurrence of the Night of Power (Lailatul Qadr) in which some people were of the opinion that it could not even be on the odd night of the last 10 days of Ramadan, as that odd night in a particular location will be in the day or an even night in some other locations. This kind of talk has never been a major topic of discussion among the classical jurist, and they were not “illiterates” when it comes to time difference in different locations. Hence, for those who are outside Saudi Arabia, the best time to supplicate on the Day of Arafah is still during wukuf at Arafah regardless of the time difference. But if one wish to avoid this fruitless discussion, then just take the view that supplications at any point during the Day of Arafah are maqbulah (granted).

Spending the night at Muzdalifah

On the onset of azan maghrib on the Day of Arafah, the millions of pilgrims will make their way to Muzdalifah to stay there for the night and to collect pebbles. The distance between Arafah and Muzdalifah is very near, perhaps about 10 to 15 minutes journey by car but because of the massive throngs of pilgrims and their buses, it could take more than an hour to reach Muzdalifah due to the human and traffic snarls. As the night is already10 Zulhijjah, the Takbir Raya could also be heard intermittently with the Talbiyah.

For some jemaah (pilgrims) who do not have a place to stay at Muzdalifah, it’s required of them to just ‘mabit’ i.e. singgah or stop a while at Muzdalifah. This means at any point after midnight at Muzdalifah, some jemaah will start moving back to Mina, the encampment that they stayed on the Day of Tarwiyah. But they must first collect their pebbles at Muzdalifah for the stoning rites. They will have to collect at least 70 pebbles if they were going to stone till 13 Zulhijjah. Otherwise 49 pebbles will suffice. They should also be mindful not to collect killer pebbles because if they miss the pillars, it’ll be their fellow jemaah that they’ll be stoning.

Feast of the Sacrifice (Eidul Adha) – 10 Zulhijjah

On arrival at Mina in the wee hours of 10 Zulhijjah, the pilgrims will perform the first-stoning-of-the-devil rite at the biggest pillar – Jamratul Aqaba with seven pebbles. After this is done, there are two ways of continuing the rites.

  • The pilgrims will shave their head and go for Tahalul Awal – meaning that the restrictions imposed on them for donning the ihram are lifted except for conjugal relations with their spouse. This means they can now don their everyday attire. The restriction on conjugal relation will continue until after they have performed their Tawaf Ifada and Sa’i at Mecca; or
  • The pilgrims will immediately leave for Mecca to do their Tawaf Ifada and Sa’i and then shave their heads at Mecca (Tahalul Qubra), which means all the restrictions of their ihram state are lifted including having conjugal relation with spouse. They then proceed to Mina to prepare for either the two-day stoning rites (Nafar Awal) or the three-day stoning rites (Nafar Akhir) of the Tasyrik

The Hajj ends after Tawaf Wida is performed when one leaves Mecca for good.

Wallahu ‘alam bi sawab


p.s. Express hajj package refers to performing the haj for only six or seven days. This is achieved by arriving in Mecca on 5th or 6th Zulhijjah (or the last day before the Saudi airspace for hajj is closed) via hajj qiran. By 12 Zulhijjah, the pilgrims would have completed all the rites and can leave Mecca for good after performing the Tawaf Wida.